Wasp nests are generally much smaller than bee hives. Wasps will aggressively defend their nest when threatened and, unlike bees, have the ability to sting multiple times.
Carpenter bees tunnel into wood to lay their eggs. They prefer bare or weathered softwoods. The entrance holes are about the diameter of your finger. Carpenter bees are generally less aggressive than honey bees and wasps. The females may sting if provoked.
The physical differences between European honey bees and Africanized are essentially impossible to determine in the field. It is estimated that virtually all of the wild bee colonies in Arizona are Africanized bees. If you encounter a hive or swarm, assume they are Africanized bees and call Southwest Pest Solutions. Once we remove the hive, it is recommended that the honeycomb be removed and pheromones be neutralized to help avoid future re-infestations.